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(Непосредственно в приложении цитировались только работы, отмеченные звездочкой.)


Daubenmire R., 1978. Plant Geography, with Special Reference to North America, New York, Academic Press.

Good R. D., 1964. The Geography of Flowering Plants (3rd. ed.), London, Longmans, 518 pp.

Hunt Ch. R., 1973. Natural Regions of the United States and Canada, San Francisco, W. H. Freeman.

Neill W. T., 1969. The Geography of Life, New York, Columbia University Press, 480 pp.

Pielou E. C., 1979. Biogeography, New York, Wiley-Interscience, 351 pp.

Polunin N., 1960. Introduction to Plant Geography, New York, McGraw-Hill, 640 pp.

Udvardy M. F. D., 1969. Dynamic Zoogeography, with Special Reference to Land Animals, New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 446 pp.

Биосфера и Международная Биологическая Программа (МБП)

* Blair W. F., 1977. Hig Biology; The US/IBP, Stroudsburg, Pa., Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross.

Botkin D. B., 1977. Bits, bytes, and IBP. BioScience, 27, 385-386.

Flessa K. W., 1980. Biological effects of plate tectonics and continental drift, BioScience 30, 518-523.

Hallam A., 1972. Continental drift and the fossil record. Sci. Am. 226 (4), 42-52.

Hutchinson G. E. (ed.), 1970. The Biosphere, Special issue of Scientific American (Vol. 223, No 3) (Also published in book form by W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco.)

Lieth H., R. II. Whittaker (eds.), 1975. Primary Productivity of the Biosphere, Berlin and New York, Springer-Verlag.

* Loucks O. L., 1983. The U. S. IBP, in perspective after 10 years. In: Ecosystem Theory and Application, C.-A. Knox, ed. New York, John Wiley and Sons.

Наземные биомы (работы общего характера)

Carpenter J. R., 1939. The biome, Am. Midi. Nat., 21, 75-91

Holdridge L. R., 1947. Determination of world plant formations from simple climatic data, Science, 105, 267-368.

Jordan C. F., 1971. A world pattern of plant energetics, Am. Sci., 59, 425-433.

Merriam С. H., 1894. Laws of temperature control of the geographical distribution of terrestrial animals and plants, National Geographic, 6, 229-238. (См. также Life Zones and Crop Zones, U. S. D. A. Bull. No 10, 1899).

Odum E. P., 1945. The concept of the biome as applied to the distribution of North American birds, Wilson Bull, 57, 191-201.

Pitelka F. A., 1941. Distribution of birds in relation to major biotic communities, Am. Midi. Nat., 25, 113-137.

Riley D., Young A., 1968. World Vegetation, Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press.

Shelford V. Е., 1963. The Ecology of North Ameruca, Urbana, University of Illinois Press.

Walter H., Box E., 1976. Global classification of natural terrestrial ecosystems, Vegetatio, 32, 75-81.


Bliss L. C., 1971. Arctic and alpine plant life cycles, Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 2, 405-438.

Brown J., Miller P. C., Tiezen L. L., Bunnell F. L. (eds.), 1981. An Arctic Ecosystem, The Coastal Tundra at Barrow, Alaska, New York, Academic Press.

Johnson P. L., 1969. Arctic plants, ecosystems and strategies, Arctic, 22, 341-355.

Северный хвойный лес

Denison W. C., 1973. Life in tall tress, Sci. Am., 228(6), 74-90.

Edmonds R. L. (ed.), 1981. Analysis of Coniferous Forests Ecosystems in the Western United States, New York, Academic Press.

Shelford V. K., Olson S., 1935. Sere, climax and influent animals with special reference to the transcontinental coniferous forest of North America, Ecology, 16, 375-402.

Warning R. H., Franklin J. F., 1979. The evergreen coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest, Science, 204, 1380-1386.

Листопадный лес умеренной зоны

Braun Е. L., 1950. Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America, Philadelphia, Blakiston Co.

McCormick 1966. The Life of the Forest (Our Living World of Nature Series), New York, McGraw-Hill.

Reichle D. E. (ed.), 1970. Analysis of Temperature Forest Ecosystem, Berlin and New York, Springer-Verlag.

Степи умеренной зоны

Allen D. L., 1967. The Life of Prairies and Plains (Our Living World of Nature Series), New York, McGraw-Hill.

Carpenter J. R., 1940. The grassland biome, Ecol. Monogr., 10, 617-684.

Clements F. E., Shelford V. E., 1939. The North American grassland. In: Bio-Ecology, F. E. Clements and V. E. Shelford, New York, John Wiley and Sons.

Hanson H. D., 1950. Ecology of the grassland. II. Bot. Rev., 16, 283-360.

Love R. M., 1970. The rangelands of the western United States, Sci. Am., 272 (2), 89-96.

* Morello J., 1970. Modelo de relaciones entra pastizales у lenosas colonzodoras en el Chaco - Argentino. (A model of relationship between grassland and wood colonizer plank in the Argentine Chaca.), Idia, 276, 31-51 (Dec. 1970).

Weaver J. E., Albertson. F. W., 1956. Grasslands of the Great Plains: Their Nature and Use, Lincoln, Neb., Johnsen Publ. Co.

Тропические степи и саванна

Bell R. H V., 1971. A grazing ecosystem in the Serengeti, Sci. Am., 225(1), 86-93.

Bourliere F., Hadley M., 1970. The ecology of tropical savannas, Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 7, 125-152.

Sinclair A. R. E., Norton-Griffiths M. (eds.), 1979. Serengeti: Dynamics of an Ecosystem, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.


Castri F. di, H. A. Mooney H. A. (eds.), 1973. Mediterranean Type Ecosystems, Ecol. Studies, Vol. 7, Berlin and New York, Springer-Verlag.

Cogswell H. L., 1947. Chaparral country, Audubon, 49, 75-81.

Cooper W. S., 1922. The broad-sclerophyll vegetation of California: An ecological study of the chaparral and its related communities. Washington, D. C., Carnegie Inst., 319, 1-124.


Gore R., 1979. The desert; an age-old challenge grows, Nat. Georg., 156, 594-639.

McGinnis W. G., Goldman B. J., Paylore P. (eds.), 1969. Deserts of the World, Tucson, University of Arizona Press.

Niering W. A., Whittaker R. H., Lowe С. H., 1963. The saguaro: a population in relation to environment, Science, 142, 15-23.

Noy-Meir I., 1973. Desert ecosystems: Environment and producers, Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 4, 25-51.

Noy-Meir I., 1974. Desert ecosystems: Higher trophic levels, Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 5, 195-214.

Shantz H. L., 1942. The desert vegetation of North America, Dot. Rev., 8, 195-246.

Sutton A., Sutton M., 1966. The Life of the Desert (Our Living World of Nature Series), New York, McGraw-Hill.

* Walter H., 1954. Le facteur eau dans les regions arides et sa signification pour l'organisation de la vegetation dans les contrees sub-tropicales. In: Les Divisions Ecologiques du Monde, Paris, Centre Nationale de le Recherche Scientifique, pp. 27-39.

Тропические леса

Golley F. B., McGinnis J. T., Clements R. G., Child G. I., Duever M. J., 1969. The structure of tropical forests in Panama and Columbia. Bio Science, 19, 693-696; 696-700.

Golley F. B., Medina E. (eds.), 1975. Tropical Ecological Systems, Ecol. Studies, № 11, Berlin and New York, Springer-Verlag.

Gomez-Pompa A., Vasquez-Yanes C., Guaria S., 1972. The tropical rain forest, a non-renewable resource, Science, 177, 762-765.

* Jordan C. F., 1982. Amazon rain forest, Am. Sci., 79, 394-401.

National Academy of Science, 1980. Conversion of Tropical Forests, Committee Report, Norman Meyers, Chairman. Washington, D. C., National Academy Press.

Richards P. W., 1952. The Tropical Rain Forest, New York, Cambridge University Press.

Richards P. W., 1973. The tropical rain forest, Sci. Am., 229 (6), 58-67.

Водные экосистемы - общие сведения

Barnes R. S. К., Mann К. H. (eds), 1980. Fundamentals of Aquatic Ecosystems, Oxford, Blackwell, 229 pp.

Mann К. H., 1969. The dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. In: Advances in Ecological Research, J. B. Cragg, ed., Vol. 6, New York, Academic Press, pp. 1-81.

Russel-Hunter W. D., 1970. Aquatic Productivity: An Introduction to Some Basic Aspects of Biological Oceanography and Limnology, New York and Toronto, Macmillan.

Пресноводные экосистемы (работы общего характера)

Coker R. Е., 1954. Streams, Lakes, Ponds, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press.

Gerking S. C. (ed.), 1967. The Biological Basis of Freshwater Fish Production, Oxford, Blackwell, 495 pp.

Gibbs R. J., 1970. Mechanisms controlling water chemistry, Science, 170, 1088-1090.

Haynes H. B. N., 1969. The Biology of Polluted Waters, Liverpool, England, Liverpool University Press.

* Livinstone D. A., 1963. Chemical composition of rivers and lakes, U. S. Geological Survey Prof., Paper 440-G.

Porter K., 1977. The plant-animal interface in freshwater ecosystems, Am. Sci., 65, 159-170.

Лентические экосистемы

Beeton A. M., 1969. Changes in the environment and biota of the Great Lakes. In: Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences, and Corrections, Washington, D. C., National Academy of Science, pp. 150-187.

Bennett G. W., 1962. Management of Artificial Lakes and Ponds, New York, Reinhold.

Brinkhurst R. O., 1974. The Benthos of Lakes, London and New York, Macmillan.

Brylinsky M., Mann K. H., 1973. An analysis of factors governing productivity in lakes and reservoirs, Limnol. Oceanogr., 18, 1-14.

Deevy E. S., Jr., 1951. Life in the depths of a pond, Sci. Am., 185, 68-72.

Lowe-McConnell R. H. (ed.), 1966. Man-Made Lakes, New York, Academic Press.

Ragotzkie R. A., 1974. The Great Lakes rediscovered, Am. Sci., 62, 454-464.

Richey J. E., et al., 1978. Carbon flow in four lake ecosystems: A structural approach, Science, 202, 1183-1186.

Лотические системы

* Allen K. R., 1951. The Horokiwi stream: A study of a trout population, New Zealand Mar. Dept. Fish Bull., № 10.

Cummins K. W., 1974. Structure and function of stream ecosystems, BioScience, 24, 631-641.

Fisher S. G., Likens G. E., 1972. Stream ecosystem: Organic energy budget, BioScience, 22, 33-35.

* Horton P. A., 1961. The bionomics of brown trout in a Detmoor stream, J. Anim. Ecol., 30, 331-338.

Hynes H. B. N., 1970. The Ecology of Running Waters, Toronto, University of Toronto Press.

* Mann K. H., 1964. The pattern of energy flow in the fish and invertebrate fauna of the River Thames, Vert. Int. Ver. Limnol., 15, 485-495. (См. также J. Am. Ecol., 34, 253-275, 1965.)

Patric R. 1970. Benthic stream communities, Am. Sci., 58, 546-549.

Vannote R. L. et al., 1980. The rever continuum concept, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 37, 130-137.

Whitten B. A. (ed.), 1975. River Ecology, Two vols. Berkeley, University of California Press.


* Armentano Th. V., 1980. Drainage of organic soils as a factor in the world carbon cycle, BioScience, 30, 825-830.

Brinson M. M. et al., 1981. Primary productivity, decomposition and consumer activity in freshwater wetlands, Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 12, 123-162.

Cowardin L. M., Carter V., Golet F. C., 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States, FWS/OBS - 79/31, Washington, D. C., Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. Dept, of Interior.

Good R. E., et al., 1978. Freshwater Wetlands. Ecological Processes and Management Potential, New York, Academic Press.

* Greeson P. E., Clark J. R., Clark J. E. (eds.), 1979. Wetland Functions and Values: The State of Our Understanding, Minneapolis, American Water Resources Assoc.

* Odum E. P., 1979. The value of wetlands; a hierarchical approach. In: Wetland Functions and Values, Greeson, Clark and Clark eds. Minneapolis, American Water Resources Assoc.

Niering W. A., 1966. The Life of the Marsh (Our Living World of Nature Series), New York, McGraw-Hill.

Wharton C. H. et al., 1982. The ecology of bottomland hardwood awamps of the Southeast: A community profile, FWS/OBS - 81/37, Washington, D. C., U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biol. Serv. Program.

Океаны (работы общего характера)

Berrill N. J., 1966. The Ocean (Our Living World of Nature Series), New York, McGraw-Hill.

Coker R. E., 1947. This Great and Wide Sea, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press.

Cushing D. H., Walsh J. J. (eds.), 1976. The Ecology of the Seas, Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders.

Falkowski P. G. (ed.), 1980. Primary Productivity in the Sea, New York, Plenum Press. (CM. Review in Science, 212, 794, 1981).

Goldreich P., 1972. Tides and the earth-moon system, Sci., Am., 226(4), 42-52.

Heezen В. C., Tarp M., Ewing M., 1959. The floors of the ocean, I. North Atlantic, Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Paper. 65, 122 pp.

MacIntyre F., 1970. Why the sea is salt, Sci. Am., 223 (5), 104-115. Ravelle R. (ed.), 1969. The Oceans, Special issue of Scientific American (Vol. 221, № 3).

Steele J. H., 1974. The Structure of Marine Ecosystems, Cambridge Mass., Harvard University Press, 128 pp.

Sverdrup H. U., Johnson M. W., Fleming R., 1942. The Oceans: Their Physics, Chemistry, and General Biology, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice-Hall.

Walsh J. J., 1972. Implications of a system approach to oceanography, Science, 176, 969-975.

Океаническая область

Hardy A. C., 1957. The Open Sea: The World of Plankton, New York, Houghton-Mifflin.

Menzies R. J., George R. Y., Rowe G. T., 1973. Abyssal Environment and Ecology of the World Oceans, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 488 pp.

* Pomeroy L. R., 1974. The ocean's food web, a changing paradigm, BioScience, 24, 299-504.

Rex M. A., 1981. Community structure in the deep-sea benthos, Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 12, 331-354.

Континентальный шельф, прибрежная зона и побережье

Amos W. Н., 1966. The Life of the Seashore (Our Living World of Nature Series), New York, McGraw-Hill.

Bahr L. M., Lanier W. P., 1981. The ecology of intertidal oyster reefs of the South Atlantic coast: A community Profile, PWS/OBS - 81/15, Washington, D. C., U. S, Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services.

Barnes R. S. K. (ed.), 1977. The Coastline, New York, Wiley-Interscience, 356 ppl Carson R., 1955. The Edge of the Sea, New York, Houghton-Mifflin.

Dolan R., Hayden В., Lins H., 1980. Barrier islands, Am. Sci., 65, 16-26.

Jackson T. C., Reische D., 1981. Coast Alert: Scientists Speak Out, San Francisco, Friends of the Earth.

Mann K. H., 1982. Ecology of Coastal Waters: A Systems Approach, Berkeley, University of California Press.

Mann K. H., 1973. Seaweeds: Their productivity and strategy for growth, Science, 182, 975-981.

Odum H. T., Copeland B. J., McMahan E. A., 1974. Coastal Ecological Systems of the United States, Washington, D. C., The Conservation Foundation.

Odum W. E., Mclvor С. C., Smith T. I., III. 1982. The ecology of mangroves of South Florida: A community profile, Washington, D. C., U. S. Fish and Wildlife Services, Office of Biological Services.

Paulson A. C., 1980. The corall atoll; An oasis in the desert, San Frontiers, Jan.-Feb., pp. 37-43.

Pearse A. S., Humm H. J., Wharton G. W., 1942. Ecology of sand beaches at Beaufort, N. C. Ecol. Monogr., 12, 136-190.

Peterson C. H., Peterson N. M., 1979. The ecology of intertidal flats of North Carolina: A community profile, FWS/OBS - 79/39, Washington, D. C., U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services.

Stephenson T. A., Stephenson A., 1949. The universal features of zonation between tidemarks on rocky coasts, J. Ecol., 37, 289-305.

Stephenson T. A., Stephenson A., 1973. Life Between Tidemarks on Rocky Shores, San Francisco, W. H. Freeman.

* Thorson G., 1956. Marine level-bottom communities of recent seas, their temperature adaptation, and their "balance" between predators and food animals, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 18, 693-700.

Области апвеллинга

Barber R. T., Smith R. L., 1980. Coastal upwelling ecosystems. In: Analysis of Marine Ecosystems, A. R. Longhurst, ed., New York, Academic Press.

Boje R., M. Tomczak (ed.), 1978. Upwelling Ecosystem, New York, Springer-Verlag.


Cronin L. E. (ed.), 1975. Estuarine Research, Two volumes, New York, Academic Press.

Kennedy V. S. (ed.), 1980. Estuarine Perspectives, New York, Academic Press.

Lauff G. A. (ed.), 1967. Estuaries, Publ. No 83, Washington, D. C., American Association for the Advancement of Science, 757 pp.

McHugh J. L., 1966. Management of estuarine fisheries. In: A Symposium on Estuarine Fisheries, Washington, D. C., Am. Fish. Soc.

McLusky D., 1981. The Estuarine Ecosystem, New York, Halsted Press, John Wiley and Sons.

Odum E. P., 1961. The role of tidal marshes in estuarine production, The Conservationists, June-July, pp. 12-15, Albany, N. Y. Dept, of Conservation.

Odum E. P., 1980. The status of three ecosystem-level hypotheses regarding salt marsh estuaries. In: Estuarine Perspectives, V. S. Kennedy, ed., New York, Academic Press.

* Odum W. E., 1970. Insidious alteration of the estuarine environment, Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 99, 838-847.

Ragotzkie R. A., 1960. Marine marsh. In: McGraw-Hill, Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, New York, McGraw-Hill, pp. 217-218.

Turner R. E., 1977. Intertidal vegetation and commercial yields of penaeid shrimp, Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 106, 411-416.

Warner W. W., 1976. Beautiful Swimmers; Watermen, Crabs and Chesapeake Bay., New York, Penguin Books.

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